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This paper analyzes the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) modules mounted on fixed tilt, one-axis, and two-axis tracking system towards maximizing the annual energy production. The performance evaluation of the proposed design of the tracking systems is carried via simulating the global radiation averages using METEONORM software and depicting the simulation results in figures using MATLAB software. The one-axis system is simulated by either fixing the azimuth angle while optimizing the inclination angles or fixing the inclination angle while optimizing the azimuth angles; simulation results show an increase in energy yield of 5.87% and 20.12% compared to that of fixed tilt system, respectively. In the two-axis system, optimization of both azimuth and inclination angles is carried out simultaneously which resulted in 30.82% improvement in energy yield. Therefore, 30% improvement in energy yield is directly reflected as saving in PV system cost due to reduction of the PV modules surface area.

The implementation of sun trackers maximizes the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems by keeping the PV modules pointing towards the maximum sun radiation during the entire day [

METEONORM 5.0 software is a comprehensive meteorological reference, incorporating a catalogue of meteorological data and calculation procedures for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. It is based on over 24 years of experience in the development of meteorological databases for energy applications.

In this paper, we calculate the radiation received from the sun using the METEONORM 5.0 software for different azimuth

One (a) and two-axis (b) tracking configurations where the PV modules rotate about the axes (inclination and azimuth) by a controllable gear.

In this paper, we investigate only the direct radiation meteorological data rather than the diffused radiation because on sunny days, the direct sunshine accounts for up to 90% of the total solar energy [

We utilize with the finding of [^{2} and 227.1 kW h/m^{2}/year.

Hourly solar irradiance from 8 to 18 O’clock.

Energy yield of the PV systems; the energy yield is 227.1 kW h/m^{2}/year.

In this section, simulation results of one-axis tracking system are presented and compared with energy yields of the PV system in previous section.

In this subsection, we fixed the azimuth angle at

Optimal inclination angles

Figure

Energy yield of fixed (fixing both

The effect of tracking can be measured as “gain”

A second method of optimizing the one-axis tracking system is by fixing the inclination angle at

Optimal azimuth angles

Energy yield of fixed (fixing both

In this section, we optimize the two-axis tracking system by varying both the azimuth angle

Optimal azimuth

Energy yield of fixed (fixing both

The gain of this system is

Summary of the improvements for tracking PV systems over fixed systems.

Case | Gain, |
---|---|

Optimal azimuth angle and variable inclination angles | 5.87% |

Optimal inclination angle and variable azimuth angles | 20.12% |

Optimal inclination and azimuth angles | 30.82% |

Comparison of the energy yield of the two-axis (variable

In this paper, we highlighted the potential of the one-axis and two-axis tracking PV systems in improving the energy production of solar system in the Hashemite University. The optimized rotation of the PV systems around the inclination axis can increase the energy yield up to 5.87% compared to the fixed systems, while the optimized rotation of the PV systems around the azimuth axis can increase the energy yield up to 20.12%, and the optimized rotation about both the inclination and the azimuth axes simultaneously could increase the energy produced by more than 30% compared to fixed systems. Therefore, the modules area can be reduced by 30% which cuts cost by the same percentage.

Azimuth angle

Inclination angle

Photovoltaic

Gain of the tracking system with respect to the fixed

Efficiency of the PV modules.

There is no conflict of interests in this paper. As a corresponding author for this paper, A. Al Tarabsheh does not have any financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations.