JAM Journal of Applied Mathematics 1687-0042 1110-757X Hindawi Publishing Corporation 631089 10.1155/2013/631089 631089 Research Article Reduction of Chern-Simons-Schrödinger Systems in One Space Dimension Huh Hyungjin Biswas Anjan Department of Mathematics Chung-Ang University Seoul 156-756 Republic of Korea cau.ac.kr 2013 13 11 2013 2013 06 08 2013 31 10 2013 31 10 2013 2013 Copyright © 2013 Hyungjin Huh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We study Chern-Simons-Schrödinger systems in one space dimension. We show that Chern-Simons-Schrödinger and 𝒩=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Schrödinger equations can be reduced, under the gauge condition A10, to equations of ϕ, ψ only which are coupled cubic Schrödinger systems.

1. Introduction

In this paper, we consider the Chern-Simons-Schrödinger (CSS) system (1)iD0ϕ+D1D1ϕ-N2ϕ+2κ|ϕ|2ϕ=0,κ1N+|ϕ|2=0,κF01-2N|ϕ|2=0,κ0N-2Im(ϕ-D1ϕ)=0 and the 𝒩=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Schrödinger (s-CSS) system (2)iD0ϕ+D1D1ϕ-N2ϕ+2λ1|ϕ|2ϕ+λ2|ψ|2ϕ=0,iD0ψ+D1D1ψ-ψ1N-N2ψ+λ2|ϕ|2ψ=0,κ1N+(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)=0,κF01+1(|ψ|2)-2N(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)=0,κ0N-2Im(ϕ-D1ϕ)-2Im(ψ-D1ψ)=0, on 1+1. Here, A0, A1, and N are real fields, ϕ, ψ are complex scalar fields, and F01=0A1-1A0. The covariant derivative is defined by Dαϕ=αϕ-iAαϕ, (α=0,1). λ1, λ2, and κ>0 are coupling constants. The space-time derivatives of a function f are denoted by (0f,1f)=(tf,xf).

The CSS model was proposed in  to study BPS domain wall solutions. The Lagrangian density of the (1+1) dimensional Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system is given by (3)=κNF01+iϕ-D0ϕ-|D1ϕ|2-N2|ϕ|2+1κ|ϕ|4, which is obtained by the dimensional reduction of the Lagrangian density of (2+1) dimensional Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system in . The (s-CSS) system is derived, by the dimensional reduction, from the paper .

An important property of the systems CSS and s-CSS is the gauge invariance. Therefore, a solution to the systems CSS and s-CSS is formed by a class of gauge equivalent pairs (ϕ,A0,A1,N) and (ϕ,ψ,A0,A1,N), respectively. Here, we will fix the gauge by imposing the condition A10. Note that temporal gauge condition A00 is well known.

The motivation considering the gauge condition A10 comes from standing wave solutions of CSS. As shown in Section 2.1, the usual ansatz of standing wave leads to A10. To study stability, it seems natural to study the initial value problem of CSS with the condition A10. The other motivation is that the Schrödinger part in CSS system is written, under the Lorenz gauge condition 0A0-1A1=0, as follows: (4)itϕ+xxϕ+A0ϕ-iϕxA1-2iA1xϕ-A12ϕ-N2ϕ+2κ|ϕ|2ϕ=0, where we have a singular derivative nonlinear term A1xϕ. The gauge condition A10 removes troublesome nonlinearity automatically. Note that Lorenz gauge condition was made use of in previous studies [4, 5] on Maxwell-Schrödinger equations in one space dimension.

The initial value problem of the Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system in 2+1 was investigated in . Blow-up solutions in finite time have been studied in  by deriving a virial identity and in  by the use of a pseudoconformal transformation. The existence of standing wave solutions has been studied in [11, 12]. Global energy solutions of Chern-Simons-Higgs equations in one space dimension have been studied in .

In this study, we consider smooth solutions which satisfy equations in the classical sense and decay properly at spatial infinity. Our first result says that CSS system can be reduced, under the gauge condition A10, to the equation of ϕ only which is a cubic Schrödinger equation.

Theorem 1.

Let one consider a smooth solution (ϕ,A0,N) of (15)–(18) satisfying ϕC([0,T];H2()). Then, the scalar field ϕ is also a solution to the following Schrödinger equation: (5)itϕ+xxϕ+2κ|ϕ|2ϕ=0.

The s-CSS system can be reduced, under the gauge condition A10, to the system of ϕ and ψ only.

Theorem 2.

Let one consider a smooth solution (ϕ,ψ,A0,N) of the system (27)–(31) satisfying ϕ,ψC([0,T];H2()). Then, the scalar fields ϕ and ψ are also a solution to the following coupled Schrödinger equations: (6)itϕ+xxϕ+2λ1|ϕ|2ϕ+(λ2+1κ)|ψ|2ϕ=0,itψ+xxψ+2κ|ψ|2ψ+(λ2+1κ)|ϕ|2ψ=0.

Remark 3.

(i) The model (5) is a cubic Schrödinger equation with attractive potential, and the system (6) is the two coupled Schrödinger equations. In particular, when λ2=-1/κ, the equations are two versions of a single nonlinear Schrödinger equation which is integrable.

(ii) Looking for standing wave solutions of (6), ϕ(x,t)=eiω1tu(x) and ψ(x,t)=eiω2tv(x), one can check that u and v satisfy the following system: (7)xxu-ω1u+2λ1|u|2u+(λ2+1κ)|v|2u=0,xxv-ω2v+2κ|v|2v+(λ2+1κ)|u|2v=0. The existence of standing waves and their properties have been studied extensively, for instance, in .

Theorem 1 is proved in Section 2, and Theorem 2 is proved in Section 3. We give concluding remark in Section 4. We use the standard Sobolev space H2() which denotes the set of weakly differentiable functions u on such that u, xu, and xxu are square integrable.

2. Reduction of Chern-Simons-Schrödinger System

Here, we consider the reduction of Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system in one space dimension. In Section 2.1, we investigate standing wave solutions of CSS system, and Theorem 1 is proved in Section 2.2.

2.1. Standing Wave Solutions of CSS System

In this section, we look for standing wave solutions of the form (8)ϕ(t,x)=eiωtu(x),A0(t,x)=A0(x),A1(t,x)=A1(x),N(t,x)=N(x), where ω is a real constant and u is a real-valued function. The fourth equation in (1) leads us to A10. Then, we have from (1) the following: (9)u′′-ωu+A0u-N2u+2κ|u|2u=0,(10)κN+u2=0,(11)κA0+2Nu2=0, where denotes a derivative d/dx. From (10) and (11), we may have the following expressions, with a boundary condition N(-)=0=A0(-): (12)N(x)=-1κ-x|u(y)|2dy,A0(x)=-2κ-xN(y)|u(y)|2dy. A simple calculation shows that (d/dx)(A0-N2)=0 which implies (A0-N2)(x)=(A0-N2)(-)=0. Then, (9) becomes (13)u′′-ωu+2κ|u|2u=0. We may obtain a solution u(x)=κωsech(ωx) and N(x)=-ω(1+tanh(ωx)).

2.2. Reduction of CSS System

The (CSS) system (1) is invariant under the following gauge transformation: (14)ϕϕeiχ,AαAα+αχ,NN, where χ:1+1 is a smooth function. Here, we impose the gauge condition A10 which reformulates the CSS system (1) as follows: (15)itϕ+A0ϕ+xxϕ-N2ϕ+2κ|ϕ|2ϕ=0,(16)κxN+|ϕ|2=0,(17)κxA0+2N|ϕ|2=0,(18)κtN-2Im(ϕ-xϕ)=0. From (16) and (17), we have, with a boundary condition N(-)=0=A0(-), the following representations: (19)N(x,t)=-1κ-x|ϕ(y,t)|2dy,A0(x,t)=-2κ-xN(y,t)|ϕ(y,t)|2dy. Let us check the compatibility of (18) with other (15)–(17). Multiplying (15) by ϕ- and taking imaginary part, we have (20)t|ϕ|2+2Im(ϕ-xxϕ)=0. Taking time derivative of N in (19) and considering (20), we have (21)κtN(x,t)=--xt|ϕ|2(y,t)dy=-x2yIm(ϕ-yϕ)(y,t)dy=2Im(ϕ-xϕ), where Im(ϕ-xxϕ)=xIm(ϕ-xϕ) and ϕ(·,t)H2() are used.

We have showed that the study of (15)–(18) reduces to the following system: (22)itϕ+A0ϕ+xxϕ-N2ϕ+2κ|ϕ|2ϕ=0, where N and A0 are defined by (19). Moreover, we can check that, using (19): (23)κx(A0-N2)=-2N|ϕ|2-2N(-|ϕ|2)=0, which implies (A0-N2)(x,t)=(A0-N2)(-,t)=0. Therefore, (22) reduces finally to (24)itϕ+xxϕ+2κ|ϕ|2ϕ=0, which proves Theorem 1.

3. Reduction of s-CSS System

The Lagrangian density of the (1+1) dimensional 𝒩=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system is given by (25)=κNF01+iϕ-D0ϕ-|D1ϕ|2+iψ-D0ψ-|D1ψ|2-|ψ|21N-N2(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)+λ1|ϕ|4+λ2|ϕ|2|ψ|2, which is obtained by the dimensional reduction of the Lagrangian density of (2+1) dimensional 𝒩=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system in . The s-CSS system (2) is invariant under the following gauge transformation: (26)ϕϕeiχ,ψψeiχ,AαAα+αχ,NN, where χ:1+1 is a smooth function. We consider the gauge condition A10 which reformulates the s-CSS system (2) as follows: (27)itϕ+A0ϕ+xxϕ-N2ϕ+2λ1|ϕ|2ϕ+λ2|ψ|2ϕ=0,(28)itψ+A0ψ+xxψ-ψxN-N2ψ+λ2|ϕ|2ψ=0,(29)κxN+(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)=0,(30)κxA0-x(|ψ|2)+2N(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)=0,(31)κtN-2Im(ϕ-xϕ)-2Im(ψ-xψ)=0. From (29) and (30), we have, with a boundary condition N(-)=0=A0(-), the following representations: (32)κN(x,t)=--x(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)(y,t)dy,κA0(x,t)=|ψ(x,t)|2-2-xN(|ϕ|2+|ψ|2)(y,t)dy. Let us check the compatibility of (31) with other (27)–(30). Multiplying (27) and (28) by ϕ- and ψ-, respectively, and taking imaginary part, we have (33)t|ϕ|2+2Im(ϕ-xxϕ)=0,t|ψ|2+2Im(ψ-xxψ)=0. Taking time derivative of N in (32) and considering (33), we have (34)κtN(x,t)=--x(t|ϕ|2+t|ψ|2)(y,t)dy=-x(2yIm(ϕ-yϕ)+2yIm(ψ-yψ))  ×(y,t)dy=2Im(ϕ-xϕ)+2Im(ψ-xψ).

We have showed that the study of (27)–(31) reduces to the following system: (35)itϕ+A0ϕ+xxϕ-N2ϕ+2λ1|ϕ|2ϕ+λ2|ψ|2ϕ=0,itψ+A0ψ+xxψ-ψxN-N2ψ+λ2|ϕ|2ψ=0, where N and A0 are defined by (32). Now we can check that x(κA0-κN2-|ψ|2)=0, which implies (36)(κA0-κN2-|ψ|2)(x,t)=0. Taking (32) and (36) into account, we can check that (37)(A0-xN-N2)(x,t)=1κ(|ϕ|2+2|ψ|2)(x,t). Then, considering (36) and (37), the system (35) reduces to (38)itϕ+xxϕ+2λ1|ϕ|2ϕ+(λ2+1κ)|ψ|2ϕ=0,(39)itψ+xxψ+2κ|ψ|2ψ+(λ2+1κ)|ϕ|2ψ=0, which proves Theorem 2.

4. Concluding Remark

As we pointed out in Section 1, Schrödinger equations with electromagnetic field like Maxwell-Schrödinger and Chern-Simons-Schrödinger have singular derivative nonlinear terms which give difficulties in analysis of the PDEs. Those challenging problems have prompted development of analytic methods and the results [412, 17] regarding issues such as existence, blowup, and asymptotic behaviors of the solution. In this aspect, the results of this study seem interesting and quite unique. CSS and s-CSS systems with gauge condition A10 reduce to coupled cubic Schrödinger equations which are much easier from analytic and numerical point of view. We could not obtain similar reduction result for the related equations like Chern-Simons-Higgs and Chern-Simons-Dirac in one space dimension which have their own interesting structures [13, 18].

Conflict of Interests

The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgment

The author was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0015866).

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