MPE Mathematical Problems in Engineering 1563-5147 1024-123X Hindawi Publishing Corporation 326239 10.1155/2013/326239 326239 Research Article Application of Variational Iteration Method with Energy Method for Nonlinear Equation Arisen from Packaging System Chen An-Jun 1, 2 Makinde Oluwole Daniel 1 Department of Packaging Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 China jiangnan.edu.cn 2 Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Advanced Food Manufacturing Equipment and Technology (Jiangnan University), Wuxi 214122 China .jiangnan.edu.cn 2013 11 11 2013 2013 31 07 2013 09 10 2013 2013 Copyright © 2013 An-Jun Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The variational iteration method (VIM) is widely applied for solving various kinds of nonlinear equations. Despite its simplicity and effectiveness, the accuracy of the method may depend on the iteration steps. However, the more iteration steps one makes, the more complex the results may become. To overcome this shortcoming, a new method combining the VIM with energy method (EM) is proposed and applied to study the nonlinear response of cubic packaging system. The analytical expressions of the important parameters such as the maximum displacement response, the maximum acceleration response of the system, the extended period of the shock, and the conditions for inner resonance of system were obtained. The results show that the maximum of the acceleration and the displacement and the extended period of the shock got by this method are very similar to the ones got by Runge-Kutta method. The result provides the new method for the dropping shock problem of nonlinear packaging system.

1. Introduction

Newton’s damage boundary concept  is the foundation for the present packaging design. In this theory, the product packaging system was considered to be undamped single degree of freedom linear system. These may not be valid because of the complexity of products configuration and the diversity of cushioning material. In procedure of transportation and storage, the dropping shock might lead to serious damage of product. Wang [2, 3] and Wang et al.  developed the concept of the dropping damage boundary curve for linear and nonlinear packaging system to evaluate the damage of product as a result of drop impact because most packaged products are damaged as a result of shocks in transportation. In the dropping shock dynamic evaluation of the nonlinear packaging system including cubic and tangent nonlinear system and other systems, it is very important to obtain the dynamic response, the maximum displacement response, the maximum acceleration response of the system, and the extended period of the shock.

For the complexity of nonlinear systems, the numerical method is mainly used for the analysis of dropping shock characteristic . Most recently, various analytical approaches for solving nonlinear differential equations were widely applied in the analysis of engineering practical problem , such as the homotopy perturbation method , parameter expansion method , energy balance method , and variational iteration method (VIM) . The VIM has been widely applied in solving kinds of nonlinear equations. For given an initial approximate solution (may contain unknown parameters), a first-order approximate analytic solution is obtained, which is not limited by small parameter.

In this paper, the VIM is used to solve the dropping shock dynamic equation of the cubic nonlinear packaging system, and the first-order approximate solution was obtained. In order to improve the accuracy of the solutions, the new method combining the first-order approximate solution of the VIM with the energy method (EM) of packaging dynamics is developed, and the analytical expressions of the important parameters such as the maximum displacement response, the maximum acceleration response of the system, the extended period of the shock, and the conditions for inner resonance of system were obtained. The results show that the maximum of the acceleration and the displacement and the extended period of the shock got by this method are very similar to the ones got by Runge-Kutta (R-K) numerical method of order4. The result provides a new method for the dropping shock problem of the cubic nonlinear packaging system.

2. The First-Order Approximation Solution of the VIM

For the cubic nonlinear cushion packaging system , the dynamic model of the system is depicted in Figure 1; in the condition of no system damping, the dropping shock dynamic equation and the dropping shock initial conditions of system can be written as (1)x¨+ω02x+kx3=0,(2)x(0)=0,x˙(0)=2gh, where k=εω02,  ε=r/k0,  ω0=k0/m is the frequency parameter, m is the mass of product, h is the dropping height of the packaging system, k0 and r denote the linear elastic constant coefficient of the cushioning material and its incremental rate, respectively, and g is the gravity acceleration.

The dynamic model of cubic packaging system.

The VIM has been widely applied in solving many different kinds of nonlinear equations and is especially effective in solving nonlinear vibration problems with approximation. Assuming the initial solutions for (1) can be written as below (3)x0=Asin(αt) where A and α are unknown parameters. By using the view of the VIM, we can construct the following iteration formula : (4)xn+1=xn+1ω00tsinω0(s-t)[x¨n(s)+ω02xn(s)+kxn3(s)]ds. The first-order iteration approximate solution was obtained as (5)x1=-3kA34(ω02-α2)sin(αt)+kA34(ω02-9α2)sin(3αt)+[αA(ω02-α2)+(3/4)kA3ω0(ω02-α2)-3αkA34ω0(ω02-9α2)]×sin(ω0t). In order to ensure that no secular terms appear in the next iteration, the coefficient of  sin(ω0t) is equal to zero, from which the α can be determined. The frequency parameter can be obtained as (6)α=ω010+6εA2+81+(15/8)εA2+(9/16)ε2A418. When ε is a small parameter, the approximation solution of the frequency can be expressed as (7)α=ω01+3εA24. The extended period of the shock can be expressed as follows: (8)τ=πα. The first-order approximation solutions of the shock dynamic equation (1) can be written as follows: (9)x1=-3kA34(ω02-α2)sin(αt)+kA34(ω02-9α2)sin(3αt) with α defined as (6). The velocity response and the acceleration response of the system can be expressed as (10)x˙1=-3αkA34(ω02-α2)cos(αt)+3αkA34(ω02-9α2)cos(3αt),(11)x¨1=3α2kA34(ω02-α2)sin(αt)-9α2kA34(ω02-9α2)sin(3αt). When αt=π/2, substituting it into (9) and (11), respectively, the maximum displacement and maximum acceleration of the system can be written in the form (12)xm=|3kA34(ω02-α2)+kA34(ω02-9α2)|,(13)x¨m=|3α2kA34(ω02-α2)+9α2kA34(ω02-9α2)|.

To check the correctness of the solution of first-order approximation, substituting (2) into (10) and combining with (6) (here, m=10 kg, k0=600 Ncm−1, r=72 Ncm−3), the two key parameters A and α can be obtained as: A=3.2252 cm, α=106.3257 s−1. The extended period of the shock was obtained as (14)τ=πα=0.02955s. When αt=π/2, according to (9) and (11), the maximum displacement of the system is  xm=3.4772 cm and the maximum acceleration of the system is  x¨m=45.9323 g, respectively.

For dynamics question of the dropping shock, the numerical solution to (1) can be obtained by applying the R-K method of order4. Then the extended period of the shock is τ=0.02851 s, the maximum displacement of shock response is  xm=3.4026 cm, and the maximum acceleration of shock response is x¨m=49.7949 g, respectively. Comparing of the first-order approximate solution with the numerical solution, the relative error of the extended period of the shock is 3.65% and the relative errors of the maximum displacement and the maximum acceleration of the first-order approximate solution are 2.2%  and 7.75%, respectively. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the dropping shock displacement response and acceleration response of the first-order approximation solution by VIM are compared with the R-K method of order4. These results show that the first-order approximate solution needs further discussion as regards how to satisfy the demand of engineering.

Comparison of the displacement response by the VIM and CVIM with the numerical simulation solved by the R-K method.

Comparison of the acceleration response by the VIM and CVIM with the numerical simulation solved by the R-K method.

3. The Correction of the First-Order Approximate Solution

For the demand of engineering, it is necessary that the first-order approximate solution needs correction. The new method was suggested which integrates the VIM with the EM of packaging dynamic, and the new theoretical solution can be obtained for the nonlinear dropping shock. For that reason, W denotes the weight of the product, if there is no system damping; in the idea of energy method, the gravitational potential energy of the system turned into completely elastic potential energy of the system while the deformation of the cushion material achieved maximum xm. Assume the dropping height of the packaging system be h; the gravitational potential energy of the system can be written as (15)U=Wh. For the cubic nonlinear packaging system, from (1), the corresponding restoring force is expressed as (16)f(x)=k0x+rx3. By using the EM, we have (17)Wh=0xm(k0x+rx3)dx. The maximum displacement is obtained: (18)xm=k02+4Wrh-k0r. In the condition of no system damping, the acceleration achieved the maximum while the replacement reached the maximum. From (1), the maximum of acceleration can be expressed as (19)x¨m=ω02(xm+εxm3).

We set (18) and (19) into (12) and (13), respectively, and the following relations were obtained: (20)xm=|3kA34(ω02-α2)+kA34(ω02-9α2)|=k02+4Wrh-k0r,(21)x¨m=|α23kA34(ω02-α2)+9α2kA34(ω02-9α2)|=ω02(xm+εxm3). Combining (20) with (21), the results are  A=3.4014 cm and α=111.2367 s−1, and they can be denoted as Av and αv. Substituting Av and αv into (9) and (11), then the correction solution of the first-order approximate by using VIM (denotes CVIM) is obtained as (22)x1=-3kAv34(ω02-αv2)sin(αvt)+kAv34(ω02-9αv2)sin(3αvt),x¨1=3αv2kAv34(ω02-αv2)sin(αvt)-9αv2kAv34(ω02-9αv2)sin(3αvt).

As αvt=π/2, from (22), the maximum displacement and the maximum acceleration response of the system, respectively, are  xm=3.4015 cm  and x¨m=49.7367 g. The extended period of the shock is τv=π/αv=0.02824 s. Compared with numerical solution, the relative errors of the extended period of the shock, the maximum displacement, and the maximum acceleration are less than 0.95%,  0.04%, and 0.13%, respectively. Additionally, the dropping shock displacement response and acceleration response of the CVIM are compared with the R-K method; see Figures 2 and 3; the displacement and acceleration response are very close to the R-K method. These results show good agreement.

4. Resonance

In a cushioning packaging system, any small vibration might lead to serious damage due to inner resonance. The inner resonance  is the key problem to optimal design. By (5), the resonance can be expected when one of the following conditions is met: (23)α=ω010+6εA2+81+(15/8)εA2+(9/16)ε2A418,α=ω0,α=ω  0  3.

These conditions should be avoided during the cushioning packaging design procedure.

5. Conclusions

In the dropping shock dynamic evaluation of the nonlinear packaging system, it is very important to obtain the maximum displacement response, the maximum acceleration response of the system, and the extended period of the shock.

The variational iteration method (VIM) is widely applied for solving various kinds of nonlinear equations. Despite its simplicity and effectiveness, the accuracy of the method may depend on the iteration steps. However, the more iteration steps one makes, the more complex the results may become. To overcome this shortcoming, a new method combining the VIM with energy method (EM) is proposed and applied to study the nonlinear response of cubic packaging system. The results show that the maximum of the acceleration and the displacement and the extended period of the time got by this method are very similar to the ones got by R-K numerical method of order4. The correction of the VIM has been shown to solve effectively, easily, and accurately the dropping shock problem of cubic nonlinear packaging system. The conditions for resonance, which should be avoided in the product packaging design procedure, can be obtained by the first-order iteration solution.

Although the example given in this paper is the cubic nonlinear packaging system, this new method can be applicable to other dropping shock problems of nonlinear packaging system.

Newton R. E. Fragility Assessment Theory and Practice, Monterey Research Laboratory 1968 Monterey, Calif, USA Monterey, Inc. Wang Z.-W. Dropping damage boundary curves for cubic and tangent package cushioning systems Packaging Technology and Science 2002 15 5 263 266 2-s2.0-0036763856 10.1002/pts.596 Wang Z.-W. On evaluation of product dropping damage Packaging Technology and Science 2002 15 3 115 120 2-s2.0-0036588925 10.1002/pts.574 Wang J. Wang Z.-W. Lu L.-X. Zhu Y. Wang Y.-G. Three-dimensional shock spectrum of critical component for nonlinear packaging system Shock and Vibration 2011 18 3 437 445 2-s2.0-79956125711 10.3233/SAV-2010-0524 Wang J. Duan F. Jiang J. Dropping damage evaluation for a hyperbolic tangent cushioning system with a critical component Journal of Vibration and Control 2012 18 10 1417 1421 Ganji S. S. Ganji D. D. Sfahani M. G. Karimpour S. Application of AFF and HPM to the systems of strongly nonlinear oscillation Current Applied Physics 2010 10 5 1317 1325 2-s2.0-77955711087 10.1016/j.cap.2010.03.015 Kimiaeifar A. Saidi A. R. Sohouli A. R. Ganji D. D. Analysis of modified Van der Pol's oscillator using He's parameter-expanding methods Current Applied Physics 2010 10 1 279 283 2-s2.0-69249214012 10.1016/j.cap.2009.06.006 Mehdipour I. Ganji D. D. Mozaffari M. Application of the energy balance method to nonlinear vibrating equations Current Applied Physics 2010 10 1 104 112 2-s2.0-69249217890 10.1016/j.cap.2009.05.016 He J.-H. Variational iteration method—a kind of non-linear analytical technique: some examples International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 1999 34 4 699 708 2-s2.0-0000092673 He J.-H. Wu X.-H. Variational iteration method: new development and applications Computers and Mathematics with Applications 2007 54 7-8 881 894 MR2395625 2-s2.0-34748870677 10.1016/j.camwa.2006.12.083 He J.-H. Variational iteration method-Some recent results and new interpretations Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 2007 207 1 3 17 MR2332941 2-s2.0-34250668369 10.1016/j.cam.2006.07.009 He J. H. Wu F G. C. Austin The variational iteration method which should be followed Nonlinear Science Letters A 2010 1 1 1 30 Wang J. Yang R. H. Li Z. B. Inner-resonance in a cushioning packaging system International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation 2010 11 351 352 Wang J. Khan Y. Yang R.-H. Lu L.-X. Wang Z.-W. Faraz N. A mathematical modelling of inner-resonance of tangent nonlinear cushioning packaging system with critical components Mathematical and Computer Modelling 2011 54 11-12 2573 2576 2-s2.0-80052630608 10.1016/j.mcm.2011.06.029 Wang J. Khan Y. Lu L. X. Wang Z. W. Inner resonance of a coupled hyperbolic tangent nonlinear oscillator arising in a packaging system Applied Mathematics and Computation 2012 218 15 7876 7879 MR2900121 2-s2.0-84858340393 10.1016/j.amc.2012.02.005 Chen A. J. Resonance analysis for tilted support spring coupled nonlinear packaging system applying variation iteration method Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2013 2013 4 10.1155/2013/384251 384251 Jamshidi N. Ganji D. D. Application of energy balance method and variational iteration method to an oscillation of a mass attached to a stretched elastic wire Current Applied Physics 2010 10 2 484 486 2-s2.0-70350714433 10.1016/j.cap.2009.07.004 Ghotbi A. R. Bararnia H. Domairry G. Barari A. Investigation of a powerful analytical method into natural convection boundary layer flow Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 2009 14 5 2222 2228 2-s2.0-56049098395 10.1016/j.cnsns.2008.07.020 Domairry D. G. Mohsenzadeh A. Famouri M. The application of homotopy analysis method to solve nonlinear differential equation governing Jeffery-Hamel flow Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 2009 14 1 85 95 MR2458714 2-s2.0-45249090359 10.1016/j.cnsns.2007.07.009 Hosein Nia S. H. Ranjbar A. N. Ganji D. D. Soltani H. Ghasemi J. Maintaining the stability of nonlinear differential equations by the enhancement of HPM Physics Letters A 2008 372 16 2855 2861 2-s2.0-40949147772 10.1016/j.physleta.2007.12.054 Rafei M. Daniali H. Ganji D. D. Variational iteration method for solving the epidemic model and the prey and predator problem Applied Mathematics and Computation 2007 186 2 1701 1709 2-s2.0-33947613673 10.1016/j.amc.2006.08.077