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Compared with ordinary tunnels, the influence analysis of underwater tunnel adjacent constructions is more complicated. At present, the empirical method used to divide the influence zone of the tunnel adjacent constructions has great uncertainty. So it is of great significance for actual construction and design to determine the influence zone accurately according to theoretical calculations. In this paper, based on the Hoek–Brown nonlinear failure criterion of rock mass and taking seepage factor into account, the stress state of rock mass around the underwater tunnel adjacent constructions can be deduced by elastoplastic theory. Then combined with the concept of “loose zone-bearing zone”, the influence zone division method of underwater tunnel adjacent constructions is proposed, and it is applied to the analysis of engineering examples. Through the deduced theoretical formulas, the influence zone of underwater tunnel adjacent construction can be divided into extensively strong, strong, relatively strong, weak, and noninfluence zones. Corresponding the influence zones with the risk levels in the code, different control measures are adopted for different risk levels, which can provide certain guidance for the design and construction of tunnel in practical engineering.

Presently, the development of urban subway traffic construction is rapid. As the utilization ratio of land resources and building space in the city is gradually improved, tunnel construction inevitably will be close to existing structures, which makes tunnel adjacent construction become the key link in current tunnel design and construction, and underwater tunnel is no exception. However, due to its more difficult construction, more complicated conditions, and more stringent requirements, the underwater tunnel adjacent construction is different from ordinary tunnels. How to evaluate the impact of underwater tunnel construction on adjacent structures is of great guiding significance for tunnel line selection and site construction.

The local and overseas scholars have performed outstanding achievement regarding the influence zone division of tunnel adjacent constructions. In 1998, Japan made a guideline for the construction of railway, highway, and electric power industries which lead to the beginning of the study on the influence zone of adjacent construction [

Summarizing previous studies, it is found that the current research on the influence zone of tunnel adjacent construction is rarely about the underwater tunnel. Using the Japanese tunnel construction guidelines as examples, all of them are comprehensively evaluated on the basis of distance, engineering geology, and construction design. When applied to underwater tunnels, it is insufficient due to the lack of consideration of water weakening and permeation to surrounding rock. In addition, most scholars use the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for the theoretical analysis. Based on the development of constitutive models of rock mass in recent years, the Hoek–Brown failure criterion is considered as a more universal model. The Hoek–Brown nonlinear theory is extensively used in various kinds of problems due to its relatively accurate solutions. In this study, based on the Hoek-Brown yield criterion, considering the influence of water seepage, the elastoplastic analysis of the underwater tunnel construction is carried out, and the method of zoning of the underwater tunnel adjacent construction is further proposed. Corresponding the influence zones with the risk levels in the code, then the appropriate control measures are selected on the basis of the risk level to guide the site construction.

Based on the Griffith brittle fracture theory, the Hoek–Brown failure criterion believed that the cause of rock failure is the deformation and expansion of the existing cracks, which has no significant relationship with the complete rock body yield strength. It is assumed that the rock mass cracks are irregular and the whole rock is isotropic. After years of research and development, the Hoek–Brown failure criterion has been amended several times. Finally, the relationship between rock parameters

In the formula,

In the formula, D is the disturbance factor that reflects the type of rock mass, and GSI reflects the integrity of rock mass.

Based on the revised Hoek–Brown failure criterion, the elastic–plastic stress state of underwater tunnel excavation is analyzed, and the calculation model is shown in Figure

Calculation model of surrounding rock.

According to Darcy’s law and the continuity equation of seepage flow in the underwater tunnel, the seepage continuous equilibrium differential equation (

Combined with above equations, the water head

When the stress state of the elastic–plastic zone of the surrounding rock is calculated, the seepage water pressure acts on the unit in the form of volume force, and the expression is as follows:

Considering the effect of seepage volume force, according to elastoplastic calculation principle, the balance differential equation of elastic zone unit is expressed as follows:

In the formula,

After the unit is deformed, according to the displacement–strain geometric equation (

After introducing the elastic boundary condition equation (

When the stress state of the plastic zone is calculated, the surrounding rock follows the Hoek–Brown failure criterion in the plastic zone. According to the force analysis when

The equilibrium equation of the unit can be changed into (

After integrating (

According to the definition of the “loose area”, it is assumed that the tangential stress on the boundary of the loose area is the original rock stress, that is

Substituting (

It can be seen from (

The radius of the bearing zone can be determined by the following:

By substituting (

After the excavation of the underwater tunnel, the initial stress equilibrium state of the surrounding rock is damaged and the stress is redistributed. The rock stress around the tunnel exceeds the yield stress of the rock mass and the rock becomes damaged or enters the plastic state. Subsequently, the stress of the plastic zone around the tunnel is partly transferred to the deep rock mass due to the stress redistribution, while the other part is relieved and eliminated due to the deformation. As the distance from the cave wall increases, the minimum radial principal stress increases and the bearing capacity of the rock mass also increases, which makes the stress state of the surrounding rock transition from plastic state to elastic state in space.

Compared with the initial state of stress, the plastic zone of surrounding rock can be divided into the bearing zone and the loose zone after excavation. The area in the deep plastic zone where the stress is higher than the initial stress and the area with the higher stress in the elastic area of the surrounding rock are combined as the “bearing zone”, while the area whose stress is lower than the initial stress is the “loose zone”. In the loose zone, the stress and crack propagation of the surrounding rock increase, and the plastic slip is obvious. When the surrounding rock reaches the plastic state, all mechanical parameters are deteriorated. At the same time, the “weak” surrounding rock structure is further weakened by the action of groundwater through pore hydrostatic pressure and hydrodynamic pressure, which makes it easier to damage.

According to the above analysis of the stress state of the surrounding rock after the underwater tunnel excavation and the stress graph of the surrounding rock, the influence zone of the adjacent construction is divided. The loose and bearing zones are considered to be the strong influence zone. In the elastic zone, under the elastic stress state, the range of tangential stress at the hole edge greater than or equal to 1.01 times of the initial stress is defined as the elastic stress concentration zone. Therefore, the stress concentration zone in the elastic zone can be regarded as the weak influence zone and the outer zone is an initial stress zone. The influence zones division is shown in Figure

Elastic–plastic stress status of the surrounding rock in underwater tunnel. In the figure, 1 and 2 are the plastic, and 3 and 4 are the elastic zones; 1 is the loose zone, 2 and 3 are the bearing zones, and 4 is the elastic stress concentration zone.

Based on the Hoek-Brown failure criterion, the loose zone can be divided into three regions, the strong influence, weak influence, and no influence zones, and the strong influence zone can be divided into extensively strong influence, strong influence, and fairly strong influence zones.

The research on the influence zone division of the adjacent construction has a strong guiding role in the design and construction of underwater tunnels. For example, when the adjacent construction is in a strong influence zone, reinforcement and support are required. When it is in a weak influence zone, monitoring measures are needed. When it is in a no influence zone, no measures are needed. Figure

Location of the engineering example.

The underwater tunnel adopts Φ6250 earth pressure balance shield machine construction. Under the river, the left tunnel is parallel to the existing tunnel main line; the minimum spacing between the outer contour of the tunnel and the outer contour of the existing tunnel is 14.700m. Then below the river bank, new tunnel underpasses the existing tunnel; the vertical distance from the outer contour of the new tunnel to the main floor of the existing tunnel is 5.442 m. The riverbed strata are mainly highly weathered conglomerate, and moderately weathered conglomerate exists locally. Two typical sections are selected for calculation and analysis. According to geological data, the water depth of the river in section A is 6 m, the depth of the shield tunnel is 10.906 m, and the whole tunnel is in strong weathered conglomerate. The water depth of river in section B is 1 m, the depth of the shield tunnel is 26.73 m, and the tunnel is also in strong weathered conglomerate.

The relevant parameters at section A are as follows: the tunnel radius is a = 3.14 m, the inner water head is h_{a} = 0 m, the water head far enough is h_{0} = 20 m, the original rock stress of surrounding rock is P_{0} = 0.4 MPa, the equivalent pore water pressure coefficient is

By substituting r = _{p} of the surrounding rock at the elastic–plastic zone can be obtained. Then the plastic zone radius_{e} can be obtained. Combined with the relevant parameters of surrounding rock and tunnel, the radius of the plastic zone after the excavation of tunnel is 5.76m.

The radii of the loose zone and the bearing zone are further solved according to (

Influence zones of section A.

The relevant parameters at section B are as follows: the tunnel radius is a = 3.14 m, the inner water head is h_{a} = 0 m, the water head far enough is h_{0} = 10 m, the original rock stress of surrounding rock is P_{0} = 0.5 MPa, and the equivalent pore water pressure coefficient is

Based on the process of calculating the radius of the influence zones in section A, the radius of the influence zones in section B can be calculated as follows.

It can be obtained from (

Influence zones of section B.

On the basis of the adjacent construction influence zone division, different influence zones of the adjacent construction are associated with different risk levels in the risk assessment, so that the risk level can be determined according to different influence zones during construction. Then the corresponding measures can be taken. Different countermeasures are adopted for the adjacent construction with different risk levels, which has guiding significance for the actual project.

Referring to

Adjacent construction influence zone and risk classification.

No. | Adjacent construction influence zone | Risk level | Accepted guidelines | Disposal guidelines | Control plans |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Extensively influence zone | Level I | Unacceptable | Risk control measures must be implemented to reduce the risk, at least to a level that is either acceptable or unwilling | Risk warning and emergency response programs, or program amendments or adjustments should be prepared |

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2 | Strong influence zone | Level II | Unwilling to accept | Risk management should be implemented to reduce risk, and the cost of risk reduction should not be higher than the risk after the risk of loss | Risk prevention and monitoring should be implemented and risk management measures should be formulated |

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3 | Fairly Strong influence zone | Level III | Acceptable | Risk management should be implemented and risk management measures can be taken | The daily management and monitoring frequency should be increased |

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4 | Weak influence zone | Level IV | Ignorable | Can implement risk management | Examination can be conducted daily |

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5 | No influence zone | None | No | No need to consider the risk | General management should be checked |

For the adjacent construction, three aspects can be controlled: one is to reinforce the existing structure, the other is to strengthen the new structure, and the third is to take measures against the soil between the existing and the new structures. Therefore, the following measures can be taken for the adjacent construction.

Under normal circumstances, the above measures are not completely independently used, and comprehensive application can achieve better control effect. In addition, construction monitoring is an important part of underground engineering. Due to the high risk, complexity, and unpredictability of adjacent construction, monitoring is even more significant. Monitoring data must be fed back in time to guide follow-up construction.

Based on the influence degree of the adjacent construction, the risk level is judged, and then the actual situation of the site is combined to take corresponding measures. For the grade I risk level, the existing structure, the new structure, and the surrounding rock between the existing structure and the new structure should be taken reinforcement measures. For the grade II risk level, the new structure and the surrounding rock between the existing structure and the new structure should take reinforcement measures, and the monitoring of existing structures is needed. For the grade III risk level, the surrounding rock between the existing structure and the new structure should take reinforcement measures, and the monitoring of the existing and the new structures are needed. For the grade IV risk level, the monitoring of the existing and the new structures are needed so as to grasp the impact of construction in real time.

In this paper, based on the Hoek–Brown failure criterion, the theoretical analysis is conducted on the underwater tunnel adjacent construction. In consideration of seepage flow, the influence zone of underwater tunnel adjacent construction is divided, then influence zones are matched with risk levels in the code. The following conclusions can be obtained.

The maximum principal stress, MPa

The minimum principal stress, MPa

The uniaxial compressive strength of complete rock mass, MPa

The dimensionless parameter

The dimensionless parameter

The dimensionless parameter

The disturbance factor that reflects the type of rock mass

The integrity of rock mass

The radius of the tunnel, m

The inner water head, m

The surrounding rock plastic zone radius, m

The plastic zone radius head, m

The elastic–plastic contact interface at the normal stress, N

The elastic zone radius, m

The loose zone radius, m

The water head far enough, m

The original rock stress of the surrounding rock, N

The lining support force, N

The radial stress, MPa

The tangential stress, MPa

The unit weight of water

The equivalent pore water pressure coefficient.

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this study.

The study presented in this article is supported by the National Science Foundation of China, Research Grant no. 50908234.