To determine the force mechanism for the steel plate shear wall with slits, the pushover analysis method was used in this study. An estimated equation for the lateral bearing capacity which considered the effect of edge stiffener was proposed. A simplified elasticplastic analytical model for the stiffened steel slit wall composed of beam elements was presented, where the effects of edge stiffeners were taken into account. The wallframe analysis model was established, and the geometric parameters were defined. Pushover analysis of two specimens was carried out, and the analysis was validated by comparing the results from the experiment, the shell element model, and a simplified model. The simplified model provided a good prediction of the lateral stiffness and the strength of the steel slit wall, with less than 10% error compared with the experimental results. The mutual effects of the bearing wall and the frame were also predicted correctly. In the end, the seismic performance evaluation of a steel slit wallframe structure was presented. The results showed that the steel slit wall could prevent the beams and columns from being damaged by an earthquake and that the steel slit wall was an efficient energy dissipation component.
Steel plate shear wall and its variations are attractive ways for seismic lateral load resisting components for both new and retrofit construction. These designs include steel walls perforated with circular holes [
Hitaka and Matsui [
In China, Zhao et al. [
Previous research results have greatly emphasized the engineering applications of the steel slit wall. To provide design suggestions, many specimens were analyzed using ANSYS. Based on the results, reasonable slit parameters were proposed, and the force mechanism for the steel slit wall was clarified. Nevertheless, most software packages used in design engineering offices do not have the ability to model the steel slit wall directly and can rarely consider the nonlinearity of the material in the shell elements. As a continued development of the above analysis, a simplified analytical model is proposed in this paper. It can be a great help for the modeling and analysis of steel slit walls. As the steel slit wall works conjointly with the outer frame structure, it is very important for the expected model to consider their coupled effects. The model proposed in this paper is called a “wallframe analysis model” and is established based on the mechanical characteristics of the steel slit wall that is subjected to horizontal loads rather than the equivalent stiffness or the equivalent bearing capacity rules. Based on the simplified model, the nonlinear static and dynamic behavior of the shear wall can be determined expediently. Our simplified model can also exactly represent the mutual effects of the shear wall and the frame.
The steel slit wall is made from a steel plate with rows of vertical slits separated by equidistant spaces, which forms a series of flexural links between the slits. Figure
Schematic drawing of steel slit wall.
The fournode finite strain shell element called “SHELL181” is used in ANSYS software package to simulate the steel slit wall. The constitutive model for steel was chosen as the trilinear model with elastic modulus
For two different specimens, the test result and the calculation result from the finite element model are compared in Figure
Verification of the finite element model.
Pushover curve for specimen A102 [
Envelope curve for specimen S4 [
Test setup for specimen S4 [
Schematics
Photograph
According to the statistical data of the calculation [
Geometric parameters for the steel slit wall.
Specimens number 





W1  6.104  30  1  200 
W2  6.104  30  2  200 
W3  7.067  30  1  200 
W4  7.067  30  2  200 
W5  10.067  30  1  200 
W6  10.067  30  2  200 
W7  7.067  20  1  200 
W8  7.067  20  2  200 
W9  7.067  40  1  200 
W10  7.067  40  2  200 
W11  7.067  60  1  200 
W12  7.067  80  1  200 
W13  6.104  30  2  150 
W14  6.104  30  2  250 
W15  6.104  60  1  150 
W16  6.104  60  1  200 
W17  6.104  60  1  250 
W18  7.067  20  3  200 
W19  10.067  20  3  200 
W20  10.067  60  1  200 
Figure
Pushover curves of steel slit walls with different
Figure
Pushover curves for steel slit wall with different
To express the difference between the pushover curves of the steel slit walls with different
Pushover curves of steel slit walls with different
Figure
Pushover curves of steel slit walls with different values of
The global deformation of the steel slit wall and the free body diagram of a flexural link are shown in Figure
Lateral deformation of the steel slit wall subjected to horizontal loads.
Global deformation
Free body diagram of a flexural link
Schematic drawing of edge stiffener.
Forcedeformation relationships for steel slit walls.
Table
Initial lateral stiffness and the bearing capacity of the steel slit wall.
Specimens number  Bearing capacity (kN)  Initial lateral stiffness (kN⋅mm^{−1})  












W1  725.37  719.82  0.77  146.27  122.12  119.24  22.68  2.42 
W3  860.43  850.75  0.14  179.77  144.82  139.10  29.24  4.12 
W5  1279.01  1202.71  6.34  268.22  201.23  188.55  42.25  6.72 
W7  1290.64  1241.50  3.96  325.56  253.17  243.26  33.83  4.07 
W9  645.32  634.40  1.72  96.05  85.28  84.22  14.05  1.26 
W11  444.35  417.63  6.40  32.97  33.39  34.53  −4.51  −3.30 
W12  322.66  308.89  4.46  14.47  16.04  15.23  −4.98  5.32 
W15  502.76  475.64  5.70  32.95  33.39  36.36  −9.39  −8.18 
W16  362.68  351.78  3.10  24.71  25.88  25.69  −3.79  0.77 
W17  282.28  274.39  2.87  19.77  20.92  21.04  −6.06  −0.61 
W20  639.51  620.64  3.04  63.63  58.19  62.60  1.66  −7.05 




W2  725.37  639.78  13.38  85.81  69.26  65.03  31.97  6.52 
W4  860.43  732.03  17.54  109.82  84.21  85.87  27.89  −1.93 
W6  1279.01  941.51  35.85  183.92  124.94  131.19  40.19  −4.77 
W8  1290.64  941.09  37.14  242.49  167.65  152.50  59.01  9.94 
W10  645.32  517.70  24.65  53.18  54.03  49.85  6.68  8.38 
W13  1195.52  864.92  38.22  114.41  90.93  95.26  20.11  −4.54 
W14  739.07  491.00  50.52  68.65  57.46  55.55  23.57  3.44 
W18  1290.64  941.04  37.15  193.19  131.22  129.39  49.31  1.42 
W19  1918.51  1079.53  77.72  282.97  167.55  175.29  61.43  −4.42 
Figure
Behavior of the steel slit wall at the ultimate state
Von Mises stress (N/mm^{2})
Horizontal displacement (mm)
Outofplane deformation (mm)
Based on the above analysis of the mechanical characteristics of the steel slit wall, the wallframe analysis model (shown in Figure
Wallframe analysis model of the steel slit wall.
Frame elements labeled as “I,” with length
The definition of the nonlinear parameters related to the plastic hinge is very important because the plastic hinge dictates the global material nonlinear behavior of the steel slit wall. Based on the existing experimental and nonlinear analysis data, a loaddeformation relationship curve is defined. Then, the nonlinear parameters related to the moment of the curvature of the plastic hinges are obtained according to the relationship between the global deformation of the steel slit wall and the local deformation of flexural links.
A generalized component of the forcedeformation relationship for depicting modeling recommended by ASCE 41 [
Generalized forcedeformation relationships for components.
To validate the wallframe analysis model, the results from two test specimens, A101 [
Geometric parameters for specimens.
Specimens number 





Sections of beam and column (mm) 

A101  42  512  1  50  4.5  — 
F100W102  42  235  2  50  4.5  100 × 100 × 6 × 8 
Figure
Simplified analytical models of two specimens.
A101
F100W102
The loaddisplacement curves for the tests and different analytical models are shown in Figure
Comparison of the initial stiffness.
Specimens number 








A101  8  8.26  7.549  8.1  1.033  0.943  1.013 
F100W102  39.2  —  26.3  43  —  1.015  1.096 
Comparison of the strength.
Specimens number 








A101  45  51.038  47.693  42.525  1.134  1.06  0.945 
F100W102  236  —  242.2  246.7  —  1.026  1.045 
Loaddisplacement curves from test, shell element model, and simplified model.
A101
F100W102
Figures
Moment diagrams of the steel frame under the drift angle of 1/500 (kN⋅m).
Shell element model
Wallframe analytical model
Moment diagrams of the steel frame under the drift angle of 1/100 (kN⋅m).
Shell element model
Wallframe analytical model
To illustrate the application of this new simplified analytical model in structural analysis, a 3story, 4bay, 3span steel frame structure was selected as a design example, which is similar to that of references by Cortés and Liu [
Building scheme (unit: mm).
Layout
Elevation
Based on the principle that the dynamic behavior of the structure in the direction of the two major axes should be similar, we can estimate the lateral stiffness required for the longitudinal frame, such that the lateral stiffness of the first story of the longitudinal frame is 37.07 kN/mm and the lateral stiffness of the other stories is 34.01 kN/mm. To obtain the relevant parameters for the steel slit walls required for each frame, (
Relevant parameters of the steel slit walls.
Story 









1  2  10  1570  3600  15  1250  143.5  21.79 
2~3  1  10  1570  3000  15  1700  143.5  19.37 
Layouts of the steel slit walls.
SSFW1
SSFW2
Based on the capacity spectrum method (CSM) [
Performance point of the different structure under frequent earthquake conditions.
SSFW1
SSFW2
Figure
Performance point of the different structures under rare earthquake conditions.
SSFW1
SSFW2
Distribution of plastic hinges.
SSFW1
SSFW2
The interstory angles of structures under rare earthquake conditions are showed in Figure
Interstory angles of structures under rare earthquake conditions.
Based on the results of the pushover analysis on series of steel slit wall specimens, the effects of the slit parameters, such as
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 51178098, 51208263), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and the Excellent Young Teachers Program of Southeast University (no. 2242014R30005), and a project funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China. This financial support is gratefully acknowledged.