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The purpose of this research is to study any effects of managerial strategies on prevention of ketosis metabolic disorder in transition period in Shahroud commercial dairy farms. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in order to obtain required information about the performance of these managerial strategies, performance costs, involvement situation with disorders relying upon clinical signs and treatment and health records, producing and economic situation, and fertility rate and its costs. The considered managerial guidelines include body condition score management or type evaluation in transition period, increase in dry matter intake close to parturition, using propylene glycol, using niacin, and high-quality feeding (the importance of feed quality) in transition period. Finally and upon arrangement of data, it was possible to study any effects of mentioned managerial strategies on related variants through multiple linear regressions. Furthermore, in order to study any relation among variables, we considered Pearson correlation coefficients as well. Finally, it was revealed that any application of managerial strategies for prevention from Ketosis in transition period has a significant effect in betterment of managerial and economic parameters.

The transition period, from 3 wk before to 3 wk after parturition, is critically important to health, production, and profitability of dairy cows. Most health disorders occur during this time. There are lots of serious changes for dairy cows in transition period from the end of pregnancy up to the beginning of lactation period. This period was really important for many years and for a lot of researchers due the effects on the health, production, and profitability by focusing on nutrition and management of dairy cows Drackley [

Both clinical and subclinical forms of ketosis are accompanied with a reduction in production, reduction of milk protein, and a reduction in fertility level (postponing of estrus, reduction of pregnancy at the first artificial inbreeding and increasing the calving interval). There is an increase in suffering of ovary cysts and metritis due to ketosis Radostits et al.

Regarding the effect of niacin in prevention from ketosis, Fronk et al. [

Regarding Body Condition Score management as an effective strategy in ketosis prevention, Treacher et al. [

Linn and Otterby [

Also through a report published by Duffiled [

Pickett et al. [

Overton and Waldron [

Ghorbani and Asadi Alamuti [

Regarding the importance of feed quality, Mohebbi [

The present research has been prepared within a time interval from January 2011 up to April 2011 for industrial herds of dairy cows at Shahroud city. There was a questionnaire for required data collection including different questions about 50 herds and analyzed accordingly. The mentioned questionnaire had some information about managerial strategies in first part for management cows in transition period to prevention from ketosis metabolic disorder including body condition score management (BCS), encouraging for consuming more dry matter (consuming dry matter management), using supplementary of propylene glycol, using niacin, and benefiting from high-quality feeding in transition period (the importance of feed quality). Also the performance costs have been measured in the same art. Next part belongs to relevant information about ketosis incidence rate with relying upon clinical signs and therapeutic and health records and also treatment costs for each head. The next part is related to production and economic information including average production parameters per head and also gross income of milk sale per head in lactation cycle. The final part of questionnaire belongs to reproduction records, average fertility, and its costs. Upon data arrangement, we had an analysis through multiple linear regression (MLR) and Statistical Software (SAS) 9.1. Also, we could calculate correlation of effective managerial strategies and related variants through a correlation method as follows:

This managerial strategy includes the body condition score control especially before parturition in a way that it is possible to make ready a cow with suitable BCS for parturition.

The obtained results out of analysis of variance show that body condition score management has a positive and significant effect on incidence rate, ketosis treatment costs (

The effect of effective managerial strategies on ketosis and managerial/economic indices.

Economic and | Management strategies in transition period effective on ketosis prevention | |||||||||

BCS | Feed intake management | Propylene glycol | Niacin | Feed quality | ||||||

Incidence rate of ketosis | 27.98** | 5.29^{ns} | 41.13** | −6.41* | 50.39** | −7.10* | 59.23** | −7.70* | 56.94** | −7.55* |

Treatment cost | 20.26** | 4.5^{ns} | 20.83** | −4.56^{ns} | 56.46** | −7.51* | 82.25** | −9.70* | 30.79** | −5.55^{ns} |

Average production | 5.35* | 2.31^{ns} | 11.19** | 3.35^{ns} | 40.37** | 6.35* | 28.43** | 5.33^{ns} | 14.89** | 3.86^{ns} |

Gross income | 5.64* | 2.38^{ns} | 10.53** | 3.25^{ns} | 40.44** | 6.36* | 27.93** | 5.28^{ns} | 14.28** | 3.78^{ns} |

Average fertility | 4.26* | 2.06^{ns} | 3.31^{ns} | 1.82^{ns} | 24.99** | 5.00 ^{ns} | 33.42** | 5.78^{ns} | 8.43** | 2.90^{ns} |

Fertility costs | 1.23^{ns} | −1.11^{ns} | 1.04^{ns} | −1.02^{ns} | 15.34** | −3.92 ^{ns} | 10.90** | −3.30^{ns} | 4.67* | −2.16^{ns} |

**Significant difference (

*Significant difference (

^{ns}Nonsignificant differences (

The obtained results out of average comparison show that there is not a significant relation from incidence rate between different groups (

Following is relevant study of correlation coefficients between BCS management and other managerial and economic indices (Table

We calculated any relation between BCS Management and ketosis incidence rate

Any relation between BCS and ketosis treatment costs. As it is expected any reduction in ketosis incidence rate in herds may cause required therapeutic costs. Therefore, with regard to the effect of BCS in reduction of ketosis rate, it is concluded that BCS management may cause a reduction in therapeutic costs. Correlation coefficient for such a relation is

Any relation between BCS and average production. We calculated the correlation coefficient of BCS relation and average production equal to

We evaluated and found out a positive relation between BCS management and gross income (

Any relation between BCS and average fertility. In this part, we found out a positive Pearson correlation coefficient (

Any relation between BCS and fertility costs. Regarding the positive relation of BCS in betterment of fertility average, it is expected that by further effects on breeding rate, BCS may cause a decrease fertility cost and artificial inbreeding.

Upon a consideration of the results out of the variance analysis, it was specified that any increase in consuming dry matter at parturition time and some days in prior will have a positive and significant effect on managerial, producing, and economic indices. As a result, any application of this strategy will have a significant effect on ketosis incidence rate, treatment costs, production average, and gross income (

The results out of a comparison in averages in current research show that there is a significant difference between these two groups (executive group and a group with lack of attention) to Ketosis incidence rate from statistical point of view (

The results out of Pearson correlation coefficients show the following relations among different variables (Table

In order to study any relation between intake rate variable increase and ketosis incidence rate with calculated correlation coefficient,

Correlation coefficient for dry matter intake and average production,

Any relation between dry matter intake and gross income and considering the effect of this variable on production rate and direct relation of these two factors have been calculated by

Any relation between fertility costs and current variable have been calculated by a negative digit (

Any relation between intake rate and treatment costs is a negative correlation. (

The results of variance analysis of this variable show that its application had a positive effect in betterment of managerial and economic parameters like average production, incidence rate, treatment costs, average production, gross income, average fertility, and fertility costs (

Also after obtaining the mentioned results, Studer et al. [

The results of comparing the average show that there is a significant difference between compared groups from the point of view of incidence rate and ketosis treatment costs (

Also, we obtained the following results after calculating the correlation coefficients in this research (Table

There was a considerable relation between using of propylene glycol and ketosis incidence rate in a way that correlation coefficient for these two variants was

Regarding the positive effect of prevention, there was a considerable relation between application of propylene glycol and treatment costs (

We calculated correlation coefficient for production average and applying of propylene glycol that means a performance increase due to benefiting from this eatable compound and in compliance with the findings of researches made by Stock and Goff. The correlation coefficients for gross income, average fertility, and fertility costs were, respectively,

Upon variance analysis, the following average comparisons and calculations were applied accompanied with calculation of correlation coefficients (Table

The findings out of variance analysis show that niacin application may have a positive effect on producing, economic, and managerial parameters such as average production, gross income, ketosis rate, treatment costs, and generation parameters (fertility average and its costs) (

The real purpose of this managerial strategy was in fact increasing the appetite of cow for consuming more dry matter. It is possible to say that this strategy intends to upgrade consuming feed rate in transition period along with more benefits in production and better functions.

The obtained results out of regression and variance analysis revealed that there is a positive relation between performing this strategy and other related variants (Table

The obtained results out of comparing the averages show that there is a significant difference between occurrence rate parameter at probable level of 0.05 of both groups (

Also the correlation coefficient show that there is a considerable relation between quality of feeding and occurrence rate (

This variable includes a set of costs imposed on a cattleman for performing all above-mentioned factors (effective managerial strategies on prevention from ketosis). In this part, we will consider any relation as an independent variable with other related variants. The obtained results of regression performance and variance analysis (Table

The effect of performance costs and performance percentage of effective managerial strategies on ketosis.

Management and economic indices | Performance cost | Performance costs | ||

Ketosis rate | 86.75** | −9.31* | 1186.94** | −34.45** |

Treatment cost | 100.73** | −10.04* | 277.01** | −16.64* |

Average production | 51.74** | 7.19* | 51.38** | 7.17* |

Gross income | 51.33** | 7.16* | 50.39** | 7.10* |

Average fertility | 46.64** | 6.83* | 30.11** | 5.49^{ns} |

Fertility costs | 20.79** | −4.54^{ns} | 11.68** | −3.42^{ns} |

**Significant difference (

*Significant difference (

^{
ns}Non significant differences (

The correlation coefficients of effective managerial strategies on prevention from ketosis and other managerial and economic indices.

Ketosis rate | Treatment cost | Average production | Gross income | Average fertility | Fertility cost | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

BCS management | −0.60 | 0.54 | 0.31 | 0.32 | 0.28 | −0.15 |

Increase DMI | −0.67 | −0.55 | 0.43 | 0.42 | 0.25 | −0.14 |

Propylene glycol | −0.71 | −0.73 | 0.67 | 0.67 | 0.58 | −0.49 |

Niacin | −0.74 | −0.79 | 0.60 | 0.60 | 0.64 | −0.43 |

Feed quality | −0.80 | −0.62 | 0.48 | 0.47 | 0.38 | −0.29 |

Performance cost | −0.98 | −0.82 | 0.72 | 0.71 | 0.70 | −0.54 |

Performance percentage | −0.98 | −0.92 | 0.71 | 0.71 | 0.62 | −0.44 |

Ketosis rate | 1.00 | 0.93 | −0.74 | −0.74 | −0.64 | −0.47 |

The results of average comparisons show that there are significant differences between the averages from various points of view of ketosis occurrence rate, treatment costs, production average, gross income, and average fertility (

We considered correlation coefficient for measuring any relation between performance costs of managerial strategies and other managerial and economic indices with the following results (Table

Correlation coefficient for performance costs of strategies and ketosis rate was

Correlation coefficient for performance costs of managerial strategies and ketosis treatment costs was

We calculated any relation between performance costs of strategies and production average as

Correlation coefficient was calculated for gross income, fertility average, and inbreeding costs and fertility, respectively, as 0.71, 0.70, and −0.54.

Calculation of this parameter is on percentage basis for total effective managerial strategies on ketosis prevention and as a sign of performance level of it for preventing this metabolic disorder in transition period. Regression results and analysis of variance (Table

The results out of average comparisons among different groups effective on ketosis prevention show that considered groups had significant differences about the following variants like: occurrence rate (

The results of correlation coefficients show that there is a close relationship between performance percentage of managerial strategies and ketosis occurrence rate (

Regarding the fertility costs and its relation with managerial strategies, there was exactly a contrast condition. It means that there is a more relation between application rate of propylene glycol (