This paper introduces a short survey on recent information theories and reviews some critical notes expressed on quantum information. The severe difficulties emerging from the literature lead us to argue about the way to follow, and in a preliminary stage, we consider how to proceed in order to provide a reasonable contribution to the conceptualization of information in classical and quantum physics. We conclude that we should go toward the essential elements of the system that acquire information and should define the common components of the measurement processes. In this way we should be able to establish fundamental properties and to circumvent tricky difficulties arisen by the concept of the observer and the variety of interferences that disturb the acquisition of information. Universal experience shows how

In 1982, Richard Feymann put forward the early concept of quantum computing and inaugurated

Ample debate arose about the limits of this conceptual framework. In fact, the everyday concept of information is closely associated with the concepts of knowledge and meaning, and it is reliant on the prior concept of the observer: all of them cause pressing and endemic problems.

Shannon’s deliberate exclusion of semantic aspects from his theory fired criticism [

Apart from authors who make their own attempts at a definition, there are also those who consider Shannon's theory good but insufficient and refine it or enrich it with alternative interpretations. I append four studies in the areas of economy, software programming, and biology:

Some writers, aware of the limited boundaries of the Shannon-Neumann theory, attempt to narrow the area of concern. They tend to see the entropy as a parameter useful to calculate channel rates and signals, and indirectly recognize the circumscribed view on communication and environment [

Zeilinger [

Zeilinger’s Foundational Principle raised criticism instead the characterization theorem by Clifton [

Entropy (

Griffiths highlights how quantum information, in contrast to classical information, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. He discusses how to get around these problems and allows a fully consistent formulation of the microscopic statistical correlations needed to properly begin the “quantization” of classical information [

Devetak et al. holds the adequacy of Shannon’s ideas only for macroscopic systems or asymptotically large number of signals [

Jozsa concludes “Over the past decade quantum information theory has developed into a vigorous field of research despite the fact that

In our opinion, the general definition of information is so much on acute and pressing problem that one should not attack the concept of information in a direct manner, but should discuss the way to follow in the preliminary step.

We believe that a study upon information should be grounded upon solid tenets which embrace both the classical and quantum environments. We fear that a specialized theory that covers a small area of interest—for example, a theory confined in QM—could lead to trivial, wrong or even bizarre conclusions. A contribution to QIS could be considerably useful as long as this contribution endeavors to provide a broad interpretation of facts.

The vast majority of authors agree that information has a certain physical basis; notably each sign has a body. In the literature,

The researches upon the abstract interpretation of information go on and nobody can see its end. Instead of investigating the idea of information which lies beyond the horizon, we could make one move at a time and could work around the concept of signifier that has universal consensus. In addition, the concept of signifier is consistent with physicists’ and engineers’ concern who handle material elements.

Common literature accepts

Horodecki writes “Quantum information, though not precisely defined, is a fundamental concept of quantum information theory which

Because of the central importance of measurement in quantum mechanics, some authors conclude that QIS can help in solving the foundational and interpretative problems of QM. Proponents are inclined to believe that a general information theory can considerably attenuate or even completely solve the problems of quantum measurement. Some researchers on QIS have argued for an information theoretic interpretation of the entire QM. Steane makes radical suggestions. He proposes a wide-ranging theoretical task to arrive at a set of principles like energy and momentum conservation, but which apply to information and from which much of quantum mechanics could be derived [

No information completely independent from life is known, and

(i) The observer constitutes a very intricate agent who affects measurement in obscure manner because of his culture, knowledge, consciousness, and so forth. Problems are so tricky that some author, such as Popper [

We search for the basic elements of the measurement process; hence we pay attention to the objective and physical component of the observer that is a receptor or a sense organ or an instrument and put aside the mind operations—that is, recognition, assignment of significance, and interpretation—which are fuzzy and subjected to personal feeling. We reduce the right side of Figure

(ii) The signifier

In conclusion,

The

Technical literature shows how

The entity

We mean to derive the equations that describe the acquisition of information from (

Let

Let

When

The signifier

Suppose

Suppose

Suppose

Sometimes the receiver does not detect a unique signifier, instead R perceives a set that is the population of signifiers. We assume that (

Suppose that the

When signifiers are given by a continuous distribution with probability density function

In conclusion, the principle of sharpness justifies and unifies the foregoing equations obtained through an assortment of methods so far. Symbolic formula (

The right side of (

The information relativity brings about knotty problems. Experimental acquisition of information can fail even in straightforward phenomena due to

One remarks “Information disappears whenever we close our eyes or forget about it.” It is enough the blink of an eye, namely, it is enough to switch of

The Schrödinger equation tells the possible positions of a quantum particle and this probabilistic distribution keeps true until a measurement is made. The particle collapses due to the intervention of

The above effects seem to lead to the following ensuing conclusions.

The conservation of matter and energy constitutes a basic principle in classical physics, and the cancellation of information yields that the material origins of information have no foundation. A sign should not disappear if a sign has a concrete body. Thus information relativity seems to deny the same concept of signifier.

The receptor

We attempt to go deep into the severe questions (

Equation (

This highlights the difference between the operational approach and the philosophical approach to the measurement problem.

The interference of the receptor denies the physical and special nature of information when one argues from the abstract stance. Inevitably, one infers radical conclusions and finds out irreconcilable statements if he/she reasons on the metaphysical plane [

Instead (

The present framework puts forward a novel answer to the questions arising in classical and quantum physics, since the information relativity constitutes a broad, universal effect, and justifies phenomena that appear rather paradoxical.

The present study does not explain the special phenomena that embody the information relativity in each event because those phenomena have differing origins. In fact the present study restricts itself to the indispensable elements _{E}

The present paper starts with the unsatisfactory state of modern theories on information. In particular, we focus on the abstract concept of information which has not reached universal consensus so far instead the concept of signifier is amply shared and could offer a basis for theoretical advances.

As second, we find that the idea of observer turns out to be all-including in the literature, and the measured event affects the measurement process through a variety of mechanisms in various fields. The essential system _{E}_{E}

The receptor and the signifier are regulated by the so-called

Finally we argue on the information relativity that derives from the sharpness principle. The present logical frame sustains the operational approach to the severe effects resulted in the information relativism and disproves the philosophical interpretations of the measurement problem.

The author thanks his colleague Leonida Gianfagna at IBM for numerous discussions on this topic and for his useful suggestions.