** "The number of degrees of freedom in a spatial region is proportional to its surface area instead of its volume”** - Daniel Harlow, Quantum gravity theorist at MIT.

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MORE IDEAS FROM THE ARTICLE

The reason Einstein’s theory of general relativity works well in lower energy calculations and standard quantum techniques but not in higher energies and scales (like a black hole), could be because certain key features or ingredients of gravity are yet unknown to us, and are therefore missing from the famous theory.

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The ‘curves in space’ theory of gravity is falling out of favour due to the fact that Einstein’s equations seem to work on our solar system but begin to break when we apply the same near a black hole or back in time, during the initial *big bang*.

*String Theory*, which conceptualizes that gravity and all other forces are products of tiny vibrating strings, is the prime candidate to replace Einstein’s work.

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According to physicists, quantum particles are responsible for three forces of nature:

- Strong nuclear force.
- Weak nuclear force.
- Electromagnetic force.

The fourth force of nature, *gravity*, is till now assumed to not originate from quantum particles, *but from the* *curves**in the space-time continuum, according to the celebrated physician Albert Einstein.*

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The infinite weirdness of black holes makes it difficult for a physicist to combine gravity with quantum mechanics (QM).

The fact that gravity works on everything makes it difficult to construct an apparatus to measure the QM properties of gravity. This is because the measuring apparatus can itself collapse into a black hole if it is heavy, and would not be able to measure accurately if it is too light.

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Quantum gravity experiments and observations show some interesting phenomena in particles and even space-time. It is the cause of the creation of entire universes, not just particles.

The more the universe expands, the more vacuum is created, due to the expansion of space-time, leading to further perplexing questions.

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- While performing quantum calculations, certain infinite terms appear, making these theories
*‘non-renormalizable’.* - Theories that are describing the forces of nature other than gravity, can easily be
**renormalized(put to scale)**and that makes gravity an*anomaly*. - Gravity, for the most part, becomes a
**special force of nature that cannot be calculated.**

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Einstein's General Theory Of Relativity provides a rock-solid description of gravity, black holes and even the Big Bang, but fails to explain the very ‘singularities’ that signal towards infinity.

The extraordinary force of gravity can be researched with new-age engineering experiments but there is a risk of pushing too far and risking extreme damage by accidentally creating a black hole.

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Any proposed theory of quantum gravity would need to take care of the *principles of locality*, which state that any variable can change independently while measuring the properties of any point in space-time. These variables are called **the degrees of freedom.**

*A worthy theory of quantum gravity has to minimize the degrees of freedom.*

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RELATED IDEAS

Many insights of Albert Einstein are now part of popular imagination: black holes, time warps, and wormholes show up in movies and books.

Less famous, but probably the most revolutionary part of Einstein's phenomena, is a simple idea that shows how pieces fit together and illuminate the road ahead.

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Scientists know four forces - things that attract or repel one object from another. The **strong force** and the **weak force** operate only inside the centres of atoms. The **electromagnetic force** rules objects with excess charge, and **gravity** directs objects with mass.

People have long speculated about gravity. While ancient Greek and Indian philosophers observed gravity, it was **the insight from Isaac Newton that made it possible to measure and predict** the phenomenon.

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**BHIP** is a theory that discusses how when information in the form of particles goes past the event horizon, there is a possibility that the information is destroyed. This is problematic is because if this paradox is true, then everything we know about physics is wrong.

However, there are several solutions to the paradox. One of these solutions is that information could be projected on the surface of the black hole. This gives way for simulation theories to come because if 3D particles could be projected onto a 2D surface, it means we could be living in a Hologram.

That is a LOT to take in...

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